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Singapore Geography


The second-smallest country in Asia, Singapore consists of Singapore Island and several smaller adjacent islets. Situated in the Indian Ocean off the southern tip of the Malay Peninsula, Singapore has an area of 693 sq km (268 sq mi). Comparatively, the area occupied by Singapore is twice the size of Grenada or slightly more than 3.5 times the size of Washington DC. Singapore Island extends 41.8 km (26 mi) east-northeast to west-southwest and 22.5 km (14 mi) south-southeast to north-northwest and has a coastline of 193 km (120 mi), including about 84 km (52 mi) along the water channel between the island and the Malay Peninsula. Singapore is connected to the nearby western portion of Malaysia by a causeway 1,056 m (3,465 ft) in length across the narrow Johore Strait. Singapore's position at the eastern end of the Strait of Malacca, which separates western Malaysia and the Indonesian island of Sumatra, has given it economic and strategic importance out of proportion to its small size. Singapore's capital city, Singapore, is located on the country's southern coast.

Singapore Island is mostly low-lying, green, undulating country with a small range of hills at the centre. The highest point of the island is Bukit Timah (166 m/545 ft). There are sections of rain forest in the centre and large mangrove swamps along the coast, which has many inlets, particularly in the north and west. Singapore's harbour is wide, deep, and well protected. The longest river, the Seletar, is only 14 km (9 mi) long.

The climate is tropical, with heavy rainfall and high humidity. The range of temperature is slight; the average annual maximum is 31°C (88°F), and the average minimum 24°C (75°F). The annual rainfall of 237 cm (93 in) is distributed fairly evenly throughout the year, ranging from 39 cm (15 in) in December to 28 cm (11 in) in May. It rains about one day in two.


Location : Southeastern Asia, islands between Malaysia and Indonesia
Geographic coordinates : 1 22 N, 103 48 E
Map references

: Southeast Asia

: total: 697 sq km
land: 687 sq km
water: 10 sq km
Area - comparative : twice the size of Grenada; slightly more than 3.5 times the size of Washington DC
Land boundaries : 0 km

Coastline : 193 km
Maritime claims
: territorial sea: 3 nm
exclusive fishing zone: within and beyond territorial sea, as defined in treaties and practice
Climate : tropical; hot, humid, rainy; two distinct monsoon seasons - Northeastern monsoon (December to March) and Southwestern monsoon (June to September); inter-monsoon - frequent afternoon and early evening thunderstorms
Terrain : lowland; gently undulating central plateau contains water catchment area and nature preserve
Elevation extremes
: lowest point: Singapore Strait 0 m
highest point: Bukit Timah 166 m
Natural resources

: fish, deep water ports
Land use : arable land: 1.47%
permanent crops: 1.47%
other: 97.06% (2005)
Irrigated land

: NA(2003)
Total renewable water resources
: 0.6 cu km (1975)
Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural)
: total: 0.19 cu km/yr (45%/51%/4%)
per capita: 44 cu m/yr (1975)
Natural hazards
: NA
Environment - current issues
: industrial pollution; limited natural freshwater resources; limited land availability presents waste disposal problems; seasonal smoke/haze resulting from forest fires in Indonesia
Environment - international agreements
: party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Geography - note : focal point for Southeast Asian sea routes




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